Passive House (also known as Passivhaus) is a building standard that uses sustainable design and construction to create a building which is truly energy efficient, comfortable, affordable and ecological at the same time.
Passive houses have consistently good air quality and very low energy consumption. In the United Kingdom, an average new house built to the Passive House standard would use 77% less energy for space heating, compared to the circa-2006 Building Regulations.
There are three basic requirements for a passive house:
needs to have heating demands lower than 15 kWh per square meter annually (kWh/m²a).
needs to have primary energy demands (such as warm water, heating, house appliances) lower than 120 kWh/m²a.
must pass a pressure test and the pressure must be limited to 50 Pascals with the pressure differential not exceeding 0.6 times a room’s volume per hour (n50 < 0.6 h-1).
What are the key features of a passive house?
Using solar gains
Using the building orientation and mass correctly allows for the maximisation of solar gains, by making solar radiation the primary heating source for the building. As a space is heated by the sun shining in through the windows, it reduces the need for heating via mechanical means (i.e. radiators).
Good daylight and shading
Natural light is free and good for you, as we outlined in a previous post. Passive House design makes use of windows and the orientation of the building to maximise natural light, therefore reducing the need for artificial lighting and reducing energy bills.
Natural ventilation and shading allow for natural cooling. Being able to open windows at night allows cooler air to flow into the building, naturally reducing the temperature and reducing the need for the use of fans, for example. In summer, solar shading can provide additional help for keeping a building cool.
High levels of insulation
Around 70% of heat loss occurs through the external walls and roof of a house. In Passive House design, high levels of insulation are used to minimise this heat loss and save energy.
Passive Houses are designed to be airtight, meaning that they are draught-free and prevent the build up of moisture in the building. This means lower heating bills and helps to eliminate damage caused by moisture and damp.
How much does a passive house cost?
In order for a passive house to be able to have such low energy demands, it needs to be built in a certain way. Passive Houses can often be more expensive than traditional houses due to the following reasons:
Amount of insulation is required
Addressing airtightness issues may require higher quality products to be specified
Mechanical ventilation is often a requirement
That said, the difference in usage for heating, hot water, ventilation and overall household electricity usage are very clear to see:
Want to know more about Passive Houses?
If you’d like to know more and are interested in doing your own Passive House project, whether it’s for a new build or existing building, get in touch with one of our team today to discuss your project and find out how we can help. Call us on 0116 251 0606 or fill out our contact form and we’ll get back to you.
Back in 2013, the New York Times published an article called “Designing for Calm”, which focused on efforts to reduce violence in psychiatric hospitals. They argued that a prominent goal should be to reduce stress for patients, which in turn would lead to less aggression and violence.
Fast forward five years and various studies have shown that architecture, through elements like space, light, geometry and materials, can have an impact on our mood. If nothing else, this reinforces our belief as architects that buildings should always be designed, first and foremost, around their occupants.
Some of the key areas that can affect mood and help to heal include:
The use of natural light in buildings can lead to energy savings, provide a more enjoyable space and also give a sense of a larger space. This can be achieved through the use of glazing, doors and roof-lights to ensure that rooms are well lit.
Natural daylight also gives us Vitamin D, a lack of which can lead to depression, obesity and other health problems. Get it right and natural daylight has been shown to improve mood, increase productivity and focus and also psychological wellbeing.
Our Lilly Bank Lodge project placed an emphasis on natural daylight – “The innovative double storey modern extension includes a large area of glazing on the ground floor, which satisfies the 21st century desire for light-filled housing. It brings light deep into the rooms and allows views across the beautiful gardens.”
Multi-purpose spaces are another significant area in which architecture can influence and affect your mood. Allowing people to interpret a space for themselves allows for a greater sense of control. The example given in the 2013 article – “Providing day rooms and other shared spaces with movable seating, for example, gives patients the ability to control their personal space and interactions with others.”
“Good designs are where it is not dictated to the individual how they should perceive, operate or feel in the building, but have the flexibility to explore and experience it for themselves,” says Dr Marialena Nikolopoulou, from the School of Architecture at the University of Kent.
The use of texture in architecture is nothing new. Textures and patterns have long been used to create unique experiences for building occupants. Texture plays a dual role in architecture: it expresses something of the quality of materials, and it gives a particular quality to light.
It is rare to find a single texture used in a building. For example, different carpet textures in a room can help create sections, allowing more versatility in a space.
In our ‘Wycliffe Nursing home’ project for Leicester based charity, Vista, we used materials to create different zones to help dementia patients. Zones included a reading area, memory wall and cinema /tv area etc.
Excessive noise can produce stress, so as architects we try to reduce this. The choice of materials, as well as the shape of a room can have huge impacts on the amount of noise produced. For example, the use of heavy carpet and soft furnishings can help dampen sound transfer.
National Storytelling Week is almost over and we’d like to share the story of one of our team, Paula. Here’s her journey into the world of architecture…
“My initial interest in architecture was related mainly to the curiosity of knowing how people relate and react with different spaces, colours and textures, their necessities, and how this can change from time to time (in a society, culture, etc…)
This interest led me to study architecture and urban design at university in Brazil. During my studies I was fortunate to gain experience in interior design. I also did some voluntary work at a local hospital, which led to my interest in health projects.
After graduating in 2014, I worked for a company that developed schemes exclusively for the public sector, which gave me experience with institutional projects such as health, residential, landscape and administrative offices. During my time at this company I helped to supervise an office with a small team of 10 employees from disciplines including engineering, architecture and topography. I enjoyed the opportunity to give presentations at council meetings, which helped to develop my confidence. Whilst working for this company I was also carrying out some interior design projects for clients of my own on the side!
In June 2016 I moved to England, where I applied to join Design Studio Architects. During my time here so far I have had the opportunity to be involved in several residential schemes including student accommodation, house extensions, flats and new buildings.
Working with Design Studio Architects has given me a better insight of the private sector – as I used to work with councils I never used to deal with clients directly, so being in touch with the clients and having to develop schemes for their needs is what I’ve been developing the most. I’ve learned the process on how to get the projects approved, accommodating both the client needs and those of the council guidance/planning officers.”
Since this week is National Storytelling Week, we decided we’d like to share with you the story of our journey, from our foundation in 2013, to where we are now.
Design Studio Architects was formed in 2013. The directors have both come from experienced roles with well established architect practices, such as Pick Everard and leading housing developer (Bloor Homes) to create a design led commercial practice which trades on the reputation for efficient design and delivery. The practice initially ran from a small office in the city centre and relocated back in 2014 to its current location off Upper New Walk.
The biggest challenge for any emerging architect studio is always to find good clients and interesting projects to work on. As a young practice it can be difficult to get your first break. We are lucky that we have found some really exciting projects by building on our existing network of contacts. The practice gained RIBA Chartership in 2014 and expanded the team from 3 to 9 in our first three years and plan to build to over the next few years.
Our philosophy is to work without preconceptions to ascertain the unique qualities of each brief, taking into consideration the social, environmental, economic and technological context.
We are deeply curious about how thoughtful design can make people feel, and the positive impact it can create, whether it’s a comfortable and functional place for someone to live or something more magical
We’re keen to explore new areas and are in early discussions with various sectors to increase our project types in 2018.
Design Studio Architects have recently selected ‘Vista’ as its charity of the year, and thus our most recent blog has been inspired by this.
Currently almost two million UK residents live with sight loss, equating to approximately 1 in 30 people. Disturbingly these figures are set to rise, for example by 2020 the number will rise to 2,250,000 and by 2050 records will double to 4 million. The underlying causes being, an ageing population and an increasing number of obesity and diabetes diagnoses. Despite these high statistics there is little evidence of architectural firms or individuals in the UK specializing in designing for the visually impaired. As a firm we feel it imperative that architects start to focus on these issues, and have thus started evaluating cost effective solutions to meet these growing needs.
If you imagine being blind, perhaps you imagine total darkness. But for a large majority of people this is not always the case, instead they see varying shades of light and shadowing. Chris Downey, an architect who lost his sight aged 45, considers light a “poetic part of architecture that brings space to life”. Already Downey and a small minority of American architects have started to create large healthcare, transportation and residential schemes focused equivocally on benefiting blind people. Now we need to consider how to make this possible within the UK.
FIGURE 1: Conceptual image of light bright life to a space
A logical layout is one of the most important aspects of designing a building suited to the needs of visually impaired people, many of whom use their memory to navigate around a building. By keeping the design logical and simple independent navigation can be made significantly easier. An example of this would be locating toilets near a dining area or main reception area. Additionally it is important for spaces to incorporate as few obstructions as possible but to also ‘break up’ large areas seen as intimidating to people who struggle to see ‘landmarks’ within a space. To solve this difficulty we could make spaces seem more manageable by using partitioning and furniture to establish clear pathways and rectangular areas. Creating tactile pathways can also help people maintain direction, for example, a ‘red carpet’ or ‘yellow brick road’ leading directly to the reception desk is an enormous aid to visually impaired people.
Figure 2: ‘yellow brick road’ leading to the building’s functions
Lighting is an equally important aspect of designing buildings for people with sight difficulties as they require on average three times the amount of light required by the sighted population.Therefore it is considered beneficial to have brighter lighting at building entrances to enable eye adjustment from the bright outdoors to the artificial indoor lighting. Additionally the quality of lighting is of equal importance to the quantity. It is imperative that general room lighting is evenly distributed, and glare free with all fittings covered by diffusers. Similarly natural daylight should be diffused so it doesn’t cause direct or indirect glare. Ways in which we could do this include utilizing external awnings, vertical blinds, and window tinting.Alternatively to aid visually impaired people,emphasis on the room’s function, or destination with supplementary lighting such as spot lighting could be utilized. However it must also be remembered that placing light fittings at or below eye level would present a direct glare inhibiting vision.
The use of contrast is also considered important when designing for visually impaired people. Luminance contrast is preferred to colour contrast as it offers light/dark variances that are picked up more easily by people with low vision. In effect this aids people to locate important aspects of a building such as doorways, signs, handrails and most importantly hazards such as edges of steps. Subsequently contrasting textures can also be helpful, with tactile ground surface indicators commonly seen on
the edges of railway platforms.Furthermore when choosing materials for flooring a slip resistant matt is a preferred choice compared to highly reflective surfaces or ‘busy’ colourful floor patterns which disorient people with low vision.
It has been suggested the internal acoustics of a building should be considered when designing for visually impaired people. When negotiating a building, people with low vision gain important information from the environmental sounds around them. For example they are able to orientate themselves by using the sound of their cane as it makes contact with surfaces. Intrusive levels of background noise however can make interaction with others and orientation more difficult. Buildings with sound-reflective surfaces may require sound dampeners like carpets, curtains, and ceiling tiles to reduce noise levels. Care must be taken however, not to completely ‘deaden’ the sound within a building with the over-use of sound dampeners. Therefore buildings should contain a balance between sound-reflecting and sound-absorbing surfaces.
Design Studio Architects intend to spend the next 12 months gaining more knowledge of all the key issues that visually impaired people deal with on a daily basis. We aim and look forward to working alongside Vista in improving people’s lives through cost effective solutions incorporated in our design process.
Finally we’ve come to the last part of the “What is ‘Architectural Identity?'” series. Having already looked at: aesthetics, function, historic/urban context and human impact, we look towards the last sub-topic on the subject, representation. Now this sub-topic is probably the most debatable category out of the previous categories we’ve touched on. Reason behind this? Opinions. Everyone has one. Sometimes people will agree on one thing whilst others will disagree completely or to a certain extent. Architecture isn’t immune to such subjective opinions, whether it is praise or criticism. A large part of architecture is not just to create inhabitable space in where we may co-exist with each other and our surroundings, not just how the building looks or works, but also what the building is suppose to ’embody’. This is where various factors come in to play, from architectural style to construction, contextual and social impact. How a building is portrayed in its essence is the best way to describe how it is represented. If we look back one more time to Zaha Hadid’s design for the Tokyo Olympic Stadium for the 2020 Olympics.
What is the stadium itself suppose to represent? What did Zaha Hadid and her architectural studio have in mind when designing the stadium? According to Dezeen, she states “The stadium will become an integral part of Tokyo’s urban fabric, directly engaging with the surrounding cityscape to connect and carve the elegant forms of the design…our three decades of research into Japanese architecture and urbanism is evident in our winning design and we greatly look forward to building the new National Stadium”. Project director of the proposal, Jim Heverin mentions the concept of the stadium: “The articulation, how [the design] manifests itself, really needs to come from a single vision, otherwise there won’t be authorship, there won’t be an authentic voice behind it….you get that in all good buildings, all good pieces of design. I don’t think [the design] is something that you can decide by committee….what we see in Japan is both innovation and craftsmanship, both together is what people have always liked about Japan.” he toldKyodo News (via InsideTheGames.biz).
Whilst talking to Kyodo News, Heverin continues: “We’ve tried to continue the park through the Stadium as a walk….at the moment you can’t walk across the site but this walkway and the concourse will allow you to walk through the site and run through the Stadium and this way it will become, hopefully, part of the park.” He goes on to say: “The most important thing is how it feels for the people…that it’s not some object that just dominates in the background. I think if we succeed in the fact that its open and it has this continuity, then I really think that this will be seen as a vibrant addition to the area. You have a real potential for all of this to act as a more active sports hub area.” With that in mind, you can begin to see that the big hope for this structure is that it not only becomes a hotspot attraction, not only to become a premier sporting hub, not to only harmoniously co-exist with the existing landscape but to become a long-standing, iconic legacy, something the people of Japan will be proud to call their own, now and years from now. The inter-galactic structure does boast the personality of the nation, Japan’s unabashed craziness, their pioneering goals in innovative technologies and discoveries, creating a sense of presence and impact, in the daily lives of the public, as well as creating a popular tourist destination for the city. The issue of people is a big thing in Japan, with their satisfactory to decent standards of quality living, their large aging populace, with the varied mix of families and single individuals, the need to create a place that is made accessible and usable for everyone is critical. It’s important that this structure will not only be just the embodiment of the Tokyo 2020 Olympics, even though the Olympic brand must be represented in the highest regard. It will need to be the perfect embodiment of the host country and its citizens. When Tokyo takes to the world stage, the whole world will be watching. Representation is key.
Some examples varied architectural representations include: the timeless Greek Parthenon, the historical enriched Hagia Sophia, the ‘poster-boy’ of American architecture, Frank Lloyd Wright’s greatest work: Fallingwater, the architectural brand infusion of Burberry (Chicago) and the soon to be finished the One World Trade Centre (Freedom Tower) at Ground Zero.
Architecture has one main purpose and one only, to serve the needs of man. This could take on different forms, from the typical residential homes of individuals and families, office towers for businesses and corporations, shops for services and goods and so on. The point of architecture is to create inhabitable spaces for which can be occupied for whatever its main use is. How a building impacts an individual or a number of people depends on it as a whole, how does it work? How does it look? How long will it last? How does it improve my life? All these questions and more can greatly influence how a building is designed, constructed, funded, ultimately it can influence the very lifespan of a project, from concept design to completion. Looking towards the Tokyo Olympic 2020 stadium, how will it impact the general public? How will it affect the local residents, the city and the world in the long-run?
The stadium proposal seems adamant on making the building more flexible beyond the Olympic events, creating a venue that is more people-friendly and engaging, that can host various artistic and cultural events as well as benefiting the local district, the city and by extension, the country. With the built-in exhibition centre (a la Zaragoza Bridge Pavilion style), the stadium proposal tries to be more than just a sporting stadium, that it can adapt to the times and various possible functions. No doubt when the structure is completed that it will look stupendous and extravagant. Will it outshine the previous stadiums and ceremonies? Most definitely. With the whole Olympic festivities will bring to Japan a wealth of economic income and several hundreds of thousands tourists in. The memorable event will give Japan the biggest global sporting competition stage (ignoring the FIFA World Cup), grabbing the world’s attention. The human factor when dealing with the Olympics is almost indescribable. Being there physically and taking part in the festivities and sporting events creates memorable moments in people, both local and visiting. Architecture, which has over the years been not just design, but also a form of communication and narrative in society, shaping our urban landscapes, defining our society in ways that are obvious and oblivious to us. Buildings have a way of becoming a small or big part of our lives, whether its somewhere we visited on holiday and remember fondly, a place where we first met our spouses, the first family home where all the kids grew up in, the same bar we go to every Friday night with our friends, whatever the situation, buildings tend to touch and influence us in the most peculiar ways sometimes.
Will Zaha Hadid’s proposal be a positive impact on the populace, not just during the Olympics but more importantly, afterwards? How will the legacy of the Games affect people 5, 10, 20 years after? We’ll just have to wait and see. In the meantime, examples of buildings that have that ‘human impact’ factor include: the wonderfully vivid and artsy Parc Guell, the botanic paradise that is known as the Gardens by the Bay, the highest of the high monolith Burj Khalifa, France’s most recognised structure, the Eiffel Tower and the beautiful existing structures found within the city of Petra, particularly the Al Khazneh.
Name: Parc Guell
Location: Barcelona, Spain
Architects: Antoni Gaudi
Name: Gardens by the Bay
Location: Marina Bay, Singapore
Architects: Wilkinson Eyre Architects
Name: Burj Khalifa
Location: Dubai, UAE
Architects: Adrian Smith of SOM
Name: Eiffel Tower
Location: Paris, France
Architect/Engineers: Stephen Sauvestre/Gustav Eiffel, Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier
Generally speaking, architecture has been around for thousands & thousands of years, ranging from Neolithic to Egyptian, Greek and Roman. It has developed and expanded from numerous cultures, traditions, styles, human impact, periodic times, religion and natural phenomena. Architecture is naturally one of the oldest crafts of the ‘design’ industry and has continued to be one of the greatest human contributions to society. Architecture is more than just a building, whether it is a private house, an office block or a shopping centre. The craft has the opportunity to become something that impacts people, to create such an impact on society that it becomes a iconic structure, rich with history that redefines the narrative and shape of the urban landscape, becoming a significant, memorable part of people’s lives and remaining timeless throughout the ages. That is part of the power of architecture, so with that in mind, looking back at the Tokyo 2020 Olympics Stadium proposal, we can try to understand what Zaha Hadid is trying to achieve through her design.
With it’s overarching curves and contextual dominance, the structure location is said to be in the Jingu area, one of “Tokyo Vision 2020″‘ sport designated areas. The area is nearby Yoyogi Park, located in the Shibuya district of Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. Yoyogi Park is close to Harajuku Station, and other landmarks in the area include the Meiji Jingu Shrine and the Yoyogi National Gymnasium. The park is noted also for its cherry blossom trees, alongside it’s featured sport courts, bike pathways, bike rentals & picnic areas. The park is also a popular venue for Japanese rock music concerts. The site is also historic for being the location of Japan’s first successful aircraft took flight in 1910, later becoming an army parade vicinity. Projected to be completed by 2019, the stadium will host the opening and closing ceremonies as well as sporting events, including athletics, rugby & soccer. The owners, Japan Sport Council, have plans for the stadium to host the Rugby World Cup in 2019. The Olympic Stadium, as well as most of the other Olympic venues are all located within the ‘Heritage Zone’ & “Tokyo Bay Zone”, each zone approximately 8000m in diameter (https://tokyo2020.jp/en/plan/venue/).
In the on-going debate of whether the stadium is ‘worth its weight’ (long-term) in size and cost, many believe it will set a new precedent in reshaping the urban context of the site’s location, bringing social, sporting and economical benefits as well as becoming a lasting legacy for Japan. Without trying to sound to cynical, the general purpose of an Olympic Bid is ‘lasting legacy’ and that’s what becomes the main focus of everything from national support, to funding, to venues. A quote from Tadao Ando (Chairman of the competition panel) states: “The entry’s dynamic and futuristic design embodies the messages Japan would like to convey to the rest of the world. I believe this stadium will become a shrine for world sport for the next 100 years”. Others disagree, such as Fumihiko Maki who mentions: “The problems I see with the planned stadium all relate to the issue of scale”, whilst claiming the design itself it’s at fault but needs to be reduced in size and become more sustainable. There are those who are in favour of the proposal stating that scaling it back in size would cause more problems then necessary: “”The articulation, how [the design] manifests itself, really needs to come from a single vision, otherwise there won’t be authorship, there won’t be an authentic voice behind it…you get that in all good buildings, all good pieces of design”.
Due to the public outcry of the Japanese public as well as many in the architectural business, the Japan Sport Council have stated that they would scale down the proposed floor plan by one-quarter, according to IBTimes. Reducing the floor area will cut costs down to 180 billion yen, whilst keeping with majority of the design scheme and height estimations, even though many are saying that the reduced cost is still higher then originally pledged during the initial stages. But whether this structure will become a positive influence on the contextual layout and the social impact of the district (and city), only time will tell. There are many buildings that have impacted their respective locations and citizens, but how many buildings have last for hundreds of years that are still with us today? Examples of some buildings that have historical and cultural impact includes the dramatic Sydney Opera House, the prominent Empire State Building, the majestic Taj Mahal, the elegant Louvre and the galactic Cathedral of Brasilia.
Many believe and follow the infamous quote by architect Louis Sullivan; “Form follows function”. He spoke on how a building looked should be secondary to how a building worked. Architectural function can bring another dimension to the building’s overall identity, sometimes even being the primary source of the building’s identity. If we look back at Zaha Hadid’s 2020 Olympic stadium in Tokyo, what are the functional benefits of the structure that makes it so costly? (The original cost proposal at the Tokyo 2020 bid was an estimate of 130 billion yen/£824m according to the In The Games website).
Discussing how a building functions depends on what the main purpose of the building is, whether it is purely for functional use, such as a warehouse, a balance between function and appearance, such as an homeowner’s house, or even to emphasise more on how a building looks, such as the Lloyd’s Building in London, which shows how the building looks from the inside-out. The general function purpose of a building is to create inhabitable spaces for people to occupy, which can range from work & commercial to leisure and personal use. How a building is constructed, kept running, how the spaces integrate, how long the building lasts for, all fall under the ‘function’ category. Other issues such as materiality, methods of heating and cooling, energy costs, load bearing and weather durability are also considered when trying to identify how a building works.
The issue of sustainability is a major factor in how buildings function today, as it can help improve the overall lifespan of the structure, as well as reducing energy costs, improve spatiality comfort, and can even change how a building would look. If we were to take a closer look into the 2020 stadium’s functions, how does Zaha Hadid’s proposal generally work, how it responds to the changing environmental climate and how will the building be profitable and socially responsible?
Even though we may not have detailed information on the building just yet, we know the stadium will hold up to 80, 000 people, as well as being adaptable for various sports, from Athletics, to Football, to Rugby. The stadium’s primary function is to host sporting events & ceremonies, but there will also be exhibition spaces (located within the covered bridge perimeter, think of the Bridge Pavilion for the Zaragoza Expo 2008) for visitors to see. As of now we don’t know how it will contribute to the environment positively or how the building will continue to be thoroughly used or adapt into a reusable function after the 2020 Olympics. Although it must be noted that the original stadium bid proposal was to renovate the current National Stadium but now it will be torn down to make way for the new stadium.
If we look at previous Olympic stadiums such as the Beijing National Stadium (Herzog & de Mueron, 2003-08) they are still being currently used for major championships such as the Supercoppa Italiana & the 2015 World Championships in Athletics. It has hosted concerts and has proposed plans to include retail and entertainment facilities. It still remains an arguably popular tourist attraction, despite reports of its decline and lack of significant sporting events. The Olympic Stadium of Athens (renovated by Santiago Calatrava, 2002-04) is suggested to be part of the whole Olympics 2004 argument in regards to the source of Greece’s economic decline, with the costs of the Olympics bringing about the nation’s initial plunge into financial crisis. (With a public debt rounding up to €168 billion back in 2004 according to Business Week). The Olympic Stadium in London (Populous, 2007-2011) attempted to create a structure that was good value for money in the long run and was adaptable to possible aftermath use. For example, it used a quarter less steel than what was used for the 2008 Beijing Stadium, surplus & recycled materials and removable components and seating (making it de-constructible for a smaller venue) were a few factors that led claim that the structure is environmentally friendly and not too costly. Again there are arguments that the building isn’t as sustainable or adaptable as originally claimed, but at least the stadium’s attempt to become more environmentally and economically aware are apparent.
We will have to wait and see in a few years to see how Hadid’s 2020 stadium will perform. In the meantime, here are some good examples of how function can become a building’s primary source of identity or how it impacts its appearance: The previously mentioned Lloyd’s Building with its metallic, modern-industrialised presence, it’s French counterpart, the Centre Georges Pompidou, with its colour-coordinated functioning structural components, 30 St Mary Axe’s oddly symmetrical elegance, the infamous Villa Savoye and the environmentally engaging CH2 building in Australia.
Name: Lloyd’s Building
Location: London, England
Architect: Richard Rogers
Name: Centre Georges Pompidou
Location: Paris, France
Architects: Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers & Gianfranco Franchini
Name: 30 St Mary Axe
Location: London, England
Architects: Norman Foster
Name: Villa Savoye
Location: Poissy, France
Architects: Le Corbusier
Date: 1928-31 (Renovated 1963, 1985-1997)
Name: Council House 2 (CH2)
Location: Melbourne, Australia
Architects/Designers: City of Melbourne in association with Mick Pearce with DesignInc